Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Assessing The Usefulness Of An Ecological Approach Social Work Essay Essays

Assessing The Usefulness Of An Ecological Approach Social Work Essay Essays Assessing The Usefulness Of An Ecological Approach Social Work Essay Paper Assessing The Usefulness Of An Ecological Approach Social Work Essay Paper Social work theories represent sets of thoughts that assist in explicating the grounds for happening of events or why specific events happened in peculiar ways and are used to foretell likely future actions of present results. It is of import to appreciate that theories, whilst based on concluding and grounds, are non once and for all proved. In societal work pattern they provide alternate models for understanding issues by the linkage of sets of thoughts, and aid people to do sense of specific state of affairss or fortunes. Their application helps societal workers in steering pattern and in accomplishing way in their attempts. This survey takes up the ecological attack for treatment and assesses its utility for societal work pattern. The ecological attack is besides compared with humanitarianism and existential philosophy and its assorted facets are critically analysed with regard to accomplishment of managerialism and answerability in societal work pattern. Discussion Overview of Ecological Approach Kurt Lewin, ( Plas, 1981 ) , states that good theory is basically practical. It provides a manner to look at the universe and ushers action for the accomplishment of vision of the manner things should be. Ecological theory, many experts feel, fits with Lewin s axiom and has the possible to give societal workers, both a practical position for effectual societal intercession, and a larger position for sing and measuring the societal universe ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . Whilst Roger Barker, ( 1968 ) , initiated the application of ecological constructs to analysis of human behavior, the application of such ecological positions to societal work pattern did non happen until it was taken up by Carel Germain in the mid 1970s ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The ecological attack has since so go increasingly popular among societal workers and is now normally used as a pattern attack for intercession ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The attack, despite going more normally used, does hold some majo r restrictions, head among which is the deficiency of ( a ) clearly defined processs for battle in appraisal, and ( B ) specific sets of techniques and schemes for intercession ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The acceptance of the ecological attack enables societal work practicians to understand the significance of the adaptative tantrum between the environment and beings ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . An grasp of such a tantrum in bend enables the outgrowth of a pattern theoretical account that basically focuses on the importance of turn uping ways and agencies to first assist persons in accommodating to their environments and 2nd in the preparation of schemes for altering environmental elements that could do jobs for service users ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . It is of import to understand three constructs, viz. ( a ) behavior scenes, ( B ) the ecosystem and ( degree Celsius ) definition of client jobs, in order to understand and appreciate the tantrum between beings and their environment ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . An apprehension of these constructs helps in understanding the significantly unconventional and different attack of the ecological position ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The construct of behaviour scenes provides fresh penetrations in the relationship that exists between single behavior and environmental scene. Barker and Gum ( 1964 ) , found that persons react otherwise to different types of environment. Analysis of behavior scene helps societal workers to gestate the jobs of service users and is considered to be a basic unit of analysis for the application of the ecological attack to societal work pattern. The behavior scene, it must nevertheless be clarified, represents more than the traditional construct of behavior as the response to a stimulation and is perceived to be a complex relationship of people, puting, clip and single behavior. A pudding stone of such behaviour scenes signifiers ecology ( Germain A ; Bloom, 1999, p 16-22 ) . Specific persons map in more than one specific ecology. The ecosystem of persons consists of the assorted inter-relationships and the conglobation of such ecologies ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The ecosystem of a kid, for illustration comprises of the ego, the household, the school and the larger community ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . It is of import to understand that the client, in such a construct of ecosystem is an built-in constituent of the ecological system and can non be juxtaposed with the larger environment ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The ecosystem of an single consists of four distinct degrees, viz. the micro-system, the meso-system, the exo-system, and the macro-system. The micro-system represents the immediate environment, viz. the impact of personality features of an person on other household members ( Jones, 2010, p 67 ) . The meso-system is more complex and refers to the interactive procedures that occur between multiple micro-systems ( Jones, 2010, p 67 ) . The e xo-system and macro-system likewise refer to more generalized degrees and stand for more extended interaction of ecologies ( Jones, 2010, p 67 ) . A The service user in such fortunes becomes the shaping and primary member of the eco system that in bend comprises of assorted overlapping subsistence like the household, the work topographic point and the larger community ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The psychosocial development and accommodation of persons are perceived to be the effect of minutess between persons and their environments. The ecological position suggests the happening of cyclic and bidirectional activities between persons and their environments ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The environment in the first topographic point affects the development and accommodation of persons. The behavior of persons lead to responses inside the environment and the altered environment thenceforth exerts a different force per unit area on the person ( Meinert, et Al, 1994, p 26-33 ) . Social workers can see this procedure as consecutive or coincident common influence, for illustration X affects Y, which once more affects X or X and Y come together to organize a integrity that defines the state of affairs ( Meinert, et Al, 1994, p 26-33 ) . This construct and these position points are of import because they lead to the preparation of new ways for conducting of appraisal and transporting out of intercession in societal work pattern ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The acceptance of the ecological position point leads to the shifting of focal point from single personality and behavioral features to relationships between persons, their households, their communities and other ecolog ies that are included in their eco systems ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . Most people do run in societal ecologies that are adaptative or congruent and where people are in harmoniousness with the societal norms of their environments ( Norman, 2000, p 11-17 ) . The demand for societal work intercession comes approximately when such adaptative tantrums cease to be and take to mal accommodations ( Norman, 2000, p 11-17 ) . The ecological position differs significantly from traditional societal work position points on definition of jobs of service users ( Tew, 2005, p 31-36 ) . Most conventional positions concentrate on persons for definition of jobs of service users and perceive such service users to be aberrant, behaviourally troubled or emotionally disturbed ( Tew, 2005, p 31-36 ) . The ecological attack really significantly does non comprehend the symptoms of service user s family footings of single pathologies but looks at such symptoms to be declarative of misfunctioning eco systems ( Tew, 2005, p 31-36 ) . Advocates of the ecological attack are likely to comprehend emotional perturbations to be comprehensive jobs that are happening in the uninterrupted version that is taking topographic point between beings and their environments ( Wilson, 1999, p 4-11 ) . Mal-adoptions are therefore felt to shack non merely in the activity of persons upon their environments but besides of the environments upon p ersons ( Wilson, 1999, p 4-11 ) . Individual jobs and troubles in societal operation are therefore perceived to stem from synergistic, dynamic and mutual sets of forces that work between persons and their eco systems ( Wilson, 1999, p 4-11 ) . The relationship between debatable societal operation and ecology has been studied in assorted relationships between ( a ) societal category and hospitalization for psychiatric causes, ( B ) chance of specific types of mental complaints and spacial community forms and ( degree Celsius ) self-destruction rates and societal administration of communities ( Peters A ; Marshall, 1996, p 17-32 ) . It is apparent that the acceptance of the ecological position requires a extremist displacement of attack by societal workers, who must travel off from persons and seek to understand a unit that is termed as individual-in-ecology ( Peters A ; Marshall, 1996, p 17-32 ) . Such an attack requires the screening of single jobs in footings of mal adaptative systems and even differences in labelling of clients, who for illustration should be termed as upseting clients instead than emotionally disturbed ( Peters A ; Marshall, 1996, p 17-32 ) . Application of Ecological Approach for Intervention The ecological scheme for intercession evidently calls for an ecological appraisal of the jobs of service users ( Norman, 2000, p 11-17 ) . Such ecological appraisal basically involves two of import issues, viz. ( a ) the designation of grounds for strife in eco systems and beginnings of strength, which can be utilised to heighten the degree of tantrum between service users and of import people in the lives, and ( B ) specification of the services that will be needed to let service users to come on towards accomplishment of coveted ends ( Norman, 2000, p 11-17 ) . Traditional theoretical accounts of societal work, it is easy to understand, are far more simplistic than the ecological appraisal attack ( Meinert, et Al, 1994, p 26-33 ) . Such methods are narrower and perceive single service users to be the lone focal point of the assessment process ( Meinert, et Al, 1994, p 26-33 ) . The intercession theoretical account in the ecological attack comprises of specific stairss that assist in interlingual rendition of such appraisal into appropriate schemes for intercession ( Meinert, et Al, 1994, p 26-33 ) . Such an intercession attack consists of seven specific phases and can be applied in a figure of pattern countries ( Nash, et Al, 2005, p 32-41 ) . The intercession theoretical account in the ecological attack is similar to other traditional attacks with respect to assemblage of informations but deviates significantly in the ways in which societal work practicians conceptualise and organise the procedures of appraisal and intercession ( Nash, et Al, 2005, p 32-41 ) . The seven of import phases in the intercession procedure comprise of ( a ) come ining the system, ( B ) mapping the ecology, ( degree Celsius ) measuring the ecology, ( vitamin D ) making a vision for alteration, ( vitamin E ) coordinating and communication, ( degree Fahrenheit ) reassessing and ( g ) evaluating ( Nash, et Al, 2005, p 32-41 ) . These stairss are significantly different from traditional methods of appraisal and intercession and plays far greater duties on the shoulders of societal work practicians ( Nash, et Al, 2005, p 32-41 ) . The first measure of the societal work practician concerns come ining the exo-system of the universe of the service user, such a procedure involves appraisal of assorted relationships in the life of the service user and designation of an entry point into the universe of the service user ( Kerson, 2002, p 8-14 ) . Appraisal of relationships in such fortunes involves scrutiny of the assorted sub systems like the immediate household, the workplace and the community that shape the universe of the service user ( Norman, 2000, p 11-17 ) . The societal work practician can obtain important information from scrutiny of such sub systems for the preparation of intercession schemes ( Norman, 2000, p 11-17 ) . Appraisal of assorted subsystems is thenceforth followed by entry into the universe of the client ( Norman, 2000, p 11-17 ) . This is mostly done through an interview affecting the societal worker, the service user and people in his or her immediate household ( Kerson, 2002, p 8-14 ) . The societal worker, after come ining the universe of the service user commences ecological function ( Kerson, 2002, p 8-14 ) . Such mapping involves analysis of assorted sub systems and designation of people and events that are relevant to the challenges facing the service user ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . Such mapping involves interaction with representatives of different sub systems like partner, parents or immediate friends and leads to obtaining of really of import information ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The function of ecology is followed by reading and appraisal. Social workers, at this phase of the procedure hunt for of import jobs and beginnings of strength in the eco system of service users ( Meinert, et Al, 1994, p 26-33 ) . The description of relationships and repeating subjects in the lives of service users forms an of import facet of this phase and helps in placing jobs every bit good as beginnings of strength that can assist the service users in accomplishing a better tantrum with the environment ( Meinert, et Al, 1994, p 26-33 ) . Appraisal of ecology is followed by turn uping the countries that require to be altered to heighten the societal operation of service users ( Meinert, et Al, 1994, p 26-33 ) . Social workers whilst concentrating on the needed alteration demand to see the service users entire eco system and utilize all available strengths in the ecology ( Meinert, et Al, 1994, p 26-33 ) . Practitioners should be unfastened to different alteration possibilities and implement proposed programs of action after obtaining the understanding of service users ( Meinert, et Al, 1994, p 26-33 ) . Social workers must pass on and organize with people in the eco system during much of the intercession procedure ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . A important portion of the alteration procedure lies in the custodies of of import people in the eco systems of service users and practicians need to offer support and facilitate alteration attempts through place visits and telephone calls ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . Reappraisal and rating besides form of import constituents of the ecological intercession procedure ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . Social workers should be unfastened on remapping the ecology and working through subsequent phases if the intercession attempts do non look to be accomplishing their stated aims ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The concluding phase of intercession that is the comprehensive rating of the procedure concerns the assemblage of information through informal meetings and the usage of construction questionnaires ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . The rating procedure is of import for practicians because it enables them to heighten the quality of their ecological attack based intervention process ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . Advantages and Disadvantages of the Ecological Approach It is of import to understand that ecological positions help societal workers significantly in understanding human jobs to basically be results of uninterrupted minutess of different types between environments and people ( Ginsburg, 1990, p 12-21 ) . The conceptualising of human jobs in this manner helps societal workers in understanding that strife between people and their environment can take specifically to adverse physical, emotional and societal effects upon people ( Ginsburg, 1990, p 12-21 ) . Such a focal point is besides a consolidative characteristic of societal work pattern. The acceptance of this attack helps societal workers in taking away their focal point from persons as perverts with emotional and mental troubles and helps in puting them merely as persons who have mal-adaption with their environments ( Henderson, 1994, p 38-45 ) . The probe and assessment procedure under this attack besides allows societal workers to interact with assorted people who are of import to t he service user and construct an intercession program that involves non merely the societal worker and the service user but besides other people who are close to the service user, understand his or her jobs and are able to assist the service user in accomplishing the desired aims ( Henderson, 1994, p 38-45 ) . Whilst the ecological attack helps societal workers significantly in gestating the indispensable concerns of societal work pattern, the attack continues to hold some built-in troubles and jobs ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . It does non for illustration provide clearly laid down sets of processs and procedures for appraisal and intercession, every bit good as schemes and concluding for their usage ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . Social workers therefore use the attack for understanding the basic relationships between service users and their environments but have to thereafter devise and explicate their ain appraisal and intercession processs ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . It has besides disturbingly been found that when societal workers intervene in the eco systems of service users by opening up communicating channels with other people in the eco system, such intercessions frequently do non hold lucidity in footings of results and can take to negative effects ( Pardeck, 1988, p 92-100 ) . Critics of the ecological attack besides argue that its application leads practicians to comprehend jobs with such wide positions that practicians attempt to be after so comprehensively that existent effectivity of pattern gets jeopardised ( Henderson, 1994, p 38-45 ) . Whilst such disadvantages and unfavorable judgments do hold virtue and must be considered by workers who opt to utilize the ecological attack, its acceptance and application does enable societal workers to obtain much larger positions and greater and more dynamic apprehension of persons and their societal, cultural and physical environments ( Henderson, 1994, p 38-45 ) . The acceptance of such positions consequences in turning away of blaming of victims and in location of appraisal and intercession of the issue in the ecosystem of service users ( Henderson, 1994, p 38-45 ) . Mentions Barker, R. , 1968, Ecological Psychology: Concepts and Methods for Analyzing the Environment of Human Behaviour, Stanford, California: Stanford University. Barker, R. , A ; Gump, P. , 1964, Big School, Small School, Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. Germain, C. , 1973, An Ecological Position in Casework , Social Casework, 54, 323-330. Germain, C. B. , A ; Bloom, M. , 1999, Human Behavior in the Social Environment: An Ecological View ( 2nd ed. ) , New York: Columbia University Press. Ginsburg, E. H. , 1990, Effective Interventions: Using Learning Theory to School Social Work, New York: Greenwood Press. Henderson, G. , 1994, Social Work Interventions: Helping Peoples of Color, Westport, CT: Bergin A ; Garvey. Jones, P. , 2010, Reacting to the Ecological Crisis: Transformative Nerve pathwaies for Social Work Education, Journal of Social Work Education, 46 ( 1 ) , 67. Kerson, T. S. , 2002, Boundary Spanning: An Ecological Reinterpretation of Social Work Practice in Health and Mental Health Systems, New York: Columbia University Press. Meinert, R. G. , Pardeck, J. T. , A ; Sullivan, W. P. ( Eds. ) , 1994, Issues in Social Work: A Critical Analysis, Westport, CT: Auburn House. Nash, M. , Munford, R. , A ; ODonoghue, K. ( Eds. ) , 2005, Social Work Theories in Action, London: Jessica Kingsley. Norman, E. ( Ed. ) , 2000, Resiliency Enhancement: Puting the Strengths Perspective into Social Work Practice, New York: Columbia University Press. Pardeck, T. J. , 1988, Social Treatment through an Ecological Approach , Clinical Social Work Journal, Vol 16, No 1. Peters, M. , A ; Marshall, J. , 1996, Individualism and Community: Education and Social Policy in the Postmodern Condition, London: Falmer Press. Plas, J. , 1981, The Psychologist in the School Community: A Liaison Role , School Psychology Review, 10, 72-81. Tew, J. ( Ed. ) . , 2005, Social Perspectives in Mental Health: Developing Social Models to Understand and Work with Mental Distress, London: Jessica Kingsley. Wilson, D. J. , 1999, Indigenous South Americans of the Past and Present: An Ecological Position, Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Already Have a High SAT Score How to Improve Even More

Already Have a High SAT Score How to Improve Even More SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips For students who are already scoring high on the SAT, improvement can be an uphill battle. High scorers may need to use different strategies to get the most out of their studying and push themselves into an elite score range. In this article, I'll go over what it means to be a high scorer and how high scorers can take their prep techniques to the next level. What Does It Mean to Be a High Scorer? You would be considered a high scorer if you’re consistently scoring an 1800 or higher on the SAT.â€Å"Consistently† means that you’ve taken at least two or three full official practice tests where you’ve scored 1800 or above. This indicates that you can expect similar scores on the real SAT. Your score puts you in the top 25% of scorers on the test. Why Do High Scorers Need Different Strategies? At this level, it’s likely that you’ve overcome significant problems with content knowledge and question comprehension and may be running into different roadblocks to a higher score.Often, high scorers struggle with careless mistakes and time issues that prevent them from earning the last few points that will get them into the 700-800 range on each section.They also may be having trouble with the hardest ten to twenty percent of questions on each test. As a high scorer, you're getting to the point where you need to try and answer every question, so you can’t leave any stone unturned when it comes to mistakes on practice tests. It’s crucial to be picky about pinpointing your weaknesses and eliminating them. You've raised the bar, and now you have to figure out how to jump over it. Strategies for High Scorers Here are some strategies that high scorers might use to earn those last few points on the SAT. These strategies are not as appropriate for students who are scoring below a 600 on each section of the test.If you’re not into the high score range yet, take a look at this article on how lower scorers should prepare. Strategy #1: Eliminate Careless Mistakes High scoring students usually don’t have many content-based problems with the material on the test. The biggest problem for people who are already scoring high on the SAT is that they continue to make careless mistakes. A careless mistake is a mistake that you made because you rushed through the question or accidentally misread it. These are not mistakes that you made because you genuinely didn't understand the question at the time and figured it out later; they're mistakes that never should have happened in the first place. The barrier between you and a really great score might be a matter of reading more carefully or checking your answers at the end of each section. It’s helpful to be aware of when your careless mistakes come up most frequently.You should take a practice test or two and see where you tend to slip up so that you can pay close attention to those types of questions in the future. On math questions, a good way to eliminate careless mistakes is to circle or underline what the question is asking for so that you don’t forget. The SAT likes to be tricky by providing answers that students might get if they read the question incorrectly or don’t follow through on solving the whole problem. If you suffer from careless mistakes on reading questions, you should always make a point of double checking your answers at the end of each section.Another good strategy for eliminating careless mistakes is to bubble in your answers at the end of each section. Circle your answer for each question in the test booklet, but wait until the end of the section to record it on your answer sheet.This saves time and will help you to avoid bubbling mistakes that can cost you major points. Making a careless mistake is like slipping on a banana peel; you can easily avoid it by paying attention. Strategy #2: Practice Good Time Management If you’re a high scorer, you might have a tendency to rush through sections on the SAT.Although this will prevent you from running out of time, it can have negative consequences if you don’t read passages or questions carefully enough.Try taking a timed practice test so you can see where you stand on time management.If you’re left with a lot of extra time at the ends of sections but are still missing questions, you should try and force yourself to devote a little more time to each question and make a point of double-checking your answers. If you’re consistently missing the last few questions because you can’t seem to get through the sections fast enough, you might consider revising your strategy in different ways.For the reading section, you should consider whether you’re reading passages in the most efficient manner.Some students read passages on the SAT very closely, which can work if you’re a fast reader, but usually isn’t the best strategy.I would recommend skimming passages to save yourself time and then going back to read specific details more closely if necessary. Skipping difficult questions can also help with time pressure on any section.If you’re trying to earn a high score, you can go back to them on your second pass through the section. This strategy will alleviate a lot of stress and help you to manage your time more efficiently. We're told to manage our time, but doesn't time actually manage us? Think about it, man. Strategy #3: Master the Hardest Types of Questions If you’re already getting high scores on the SAT, it’s possible that you’re being shut out from those last few points by the most difficult ten to twenty percent of questions on each section. We've written articles on the hardest questions for each section of the SAT.You can read these articles for a better understanding of how to get through these questions and think about them logically. Here are our lists of the hardest Writing, Math, and Reading questions. I would recommend that you try to do each of the hard questions in these articles on your own first and see if you end up with the correct answer.If you answer incorrectly, skip to the solution, and try to solve it again on your own with the correct answer in mind.You might have an â€Å"aha† moment without reading our explanation, which is a step in the right direction if you hope to answer these types of questions independently on the real test.Working through difficult questions will help you to get better practice for similar situations on the test (and will make most other questions seem simple in comparison!). It’s important to keep in mind that these lists of difficult questions might not be universally applicable.For most students, the questions on our lists will be some of the hardest on the SAT, but there are bound to be some disagreements.This is why it’s important that you also look carefully at where you tend to make mistakes on practice tests.Don’t assume that you’ll end up with a perfect score just because you can answer the questions on these lists!Pay attention to your specific weaknesses, whether they’re careless mistakes, time pressure, or questions in a certain content area. With some mental strength training, you can learn to manage even the most difficult questions relatively easily. Strategy #4: Avoid Test Anxiety You’re aiming for a very high score, and you only have so many chances to get it.That kind of pressure will make even the calmest person anxious.It’s ok to be a little nervous, but if you let your worries take over you could end up sabotaging yourself. Skipping difficult questions initially can bring out a lot of anxiety in high scorers.If you do have to skip a question, remind yourself that it’s normal, you’ll come back to it, and you will probably have a clearer head once you’ve gotten through most of the easy questions in the section.You have every reason to believe that you can answer it correctly on your second try.Remind yourself that this is no more difficult than any of the practice tests that you aced. If it helps you to write the word fear and cross it out before the test, go for it. Strategy #5: Don’t OverthinkQuestions Test anxiety can also cause high scorers to overthink simple questions.This is something you must learn to avoid, especially when it comes to the Reading section.The questions on the Reading section of the SAT are always based on information that is directly stated in the text.Don’t start to read between the lines or make assumptions about the information. Your mind may be tempted to go off in a million directions if you’re struggling on a question.You should always bring yourself back to the simple truth that there is only one correct answer to each question, and it’s based solely on the facts presented to you. If your brain feels like this, take a minute to regroup. Conclusion High scorers on the SAT who are hoping to improve even further will need to adopt strategies that directly combat the issues that are most common for them.High scorers often have problems with careless errors and time management, and they will need to be able to answer even the most difficult questions correctly if they hope to earn a great score. Overthinking is also a big problem for those who are already scoring high on the SAT, so it’s important that you keep your cool during the test and avoid complicating simple questions.If you can understand your main weaknesses and use these strategies to combat them, there’s nothing stopping you from getting a perfect or close to perfect score! What's Next? Check out our articles on how to get an 800 on the Reading, Math, and Writing sections of the SAT. They will give you more specific strategies for improving your scores. If you have very high SAT scores, you're probably looking at competitive colleges. Read this article to learn more about the most selective colleges in the nation and how you can improve your chances of acceptance. Not sure how high to set your goals? Find out what a good SAT score for your college of choice might look like. Want to improve your SAT score by 240 points?We have the industry's leading SAT prep program. Built by Harvard grads and SAT full scorers, the program learns your strengths and weaknesses through advanced statistics, then customizes your prep program to you so you get the most effective prep possible. Check out our 5-day free trial today: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Tweet Samantha Lindsay About the Author Samantha is a blog content writer for PrepScholar. Her goal is to help students adopt a less stressful view of standardized testing and other academic challenges through her articles. Samantha is also passionate about art and graduated with honors from Dartmouth College as a Studio Art major in 2014. In high school, she earned a 2400 on the SAT, 5's on all seven of her AP tests, and was named a National Merit Scholar. Get Free Guides to Boost Your SAT/ACT Get FREE EXCLUSIVE insider tips on how to ACE THE SAT/ACT. 100% Privacy. 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Friday, February 14, 2020

Article summary Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Summary - Article Example The survey listed credit rating as the second most important factor in organization’s capital structure policy decisions. The CR-CS model (credit rating –capital structure), as formulated by Kisgen illustrates that, the capital structure policy of any firm is influenced by its credit ratings (Kisgen, p1325). The model is a general description of the behavior of a subsample of firms. The appeal of the model varies systematically between firms as classified by some firm-level attributes. Those attributes are examined as follows; first, a test of the sensitivity of the active firms to the capital market participation versus inactiveness to capital market participation. Second, the sensitivity of the CR-CS model in firm’s bond ratings. Third, the effect of CR-CS motivation on firms that are active participants in the commercial paper markets as compared to the inactive firms. Last, examination of the capital structure behavior in relation to investment opportunities available (Kisgen, p1325). Reconfirming Kisgen’s findings, firms on the verge of rates change uses less debt financing margin therefore supporting the CR-CS model. However, CR-CS motivation cannot be documented to be systematically related to the attributes above. The major drawback of the model is the fact that, CR-CS model does not apply to all the rating classes. The model, as analyses indicates only holds in B-rated firms. Thus, Kisgen’s initial findings were driven by a subsample of firms with very low ratings. The usage of B-rated firms in support of the model presents a major weakness in the model. B-rated firms are associated with constant financial distresses therefore, their marginal financing behavior is influenced more by their lack of access to the debt market (Kisgen, p1331). Additionally, the model implies that, organizations on the edge of grade rating based on investment and noninvestment should be

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Michelangelo and his Sistine Chapel project Research Paper

Michelangelo and his Sistine Chapel project - Research Paper Example Similar was the case with Michelangelo in relation to the Sistine Chapel project, though for different reasons. He was not in proper shape of mind, throughout the four year during which the project lingered on for multiplicity of reasons and Ross King (2003, p.1) puts it thus: â€Å"Michelangelo Buonarroti was summoned back to this workshop behind Santa Cateriea in April 1508. He obeyed the call with great reluctance, having vowed he would never return to Rome.†Thus began the artistic creation of Sistine Chapel Ceiling project of Michelangelo (1475-1564) The intent behind this project: The directions were from Pope Julius, II. What was the credentials of the man, personal and official, of the holy man who was about to entrust to him one of the all-time great responsibilities in the world of art? He was known to be an arrogant, hot tempered and given to military adventures and ardent followers of the Christian principles as perceived by him. He wanted to have the best for his t omb and wished to contribute something tangible for the architectural glory of the city of Rome. He put before Michelangelo his request to paint the chapel ceiling. That was tantamount to the papal order. He had twin visions about the project. That Rome should be rebuilt to its pristine glory and he began to plan to achieve his objective with great applications and issued directions accordingly. Such an achievement would be to his personal credit and would surpass the accomplishments of Pope Alexander VI. That was the other important consideration. What was the scale of preparations for the project? King writes, â€Å"Tons of building materials cluttered the surround streets and pizzas as an army of 2000 carpenters and stonemasons prepared themselves for the largest construction project seen anywhere in Italy since the days of ancient Rome.†(p.6) The task was tough viewed from any angle. Firstly about the work related to the ceiling. The position, from which the sculptor had to work, was uneven and not flat. It was a gigantic ceiling of 40(131 feet) meters long and 13 meters (43 feet) wide. Michelangelo painted in all over 5000 square feet of frescoes. On the frescoes he depicted some of the greatest episodes from the Book of Genesis, like the Creation, the Fall, and picture immediately after Noah’s deluge etc By the side of such scenes, giant portraits of prophets and sibyls who predicted the arrival of Messiah were shown. The entire work was a beauty in tragedy. Below spandrels and lunettes with ancestors of Jesus and the tragic stories of ancient Israel were created. Michelangelo’s awesome skill was seen in the scattered small figures, cherubs and nudes (ignudi), more than 300 of them on the ceiling, each was provided with the most appropriate space, as if it was made for them only. The ceiling was dissected with architectural members and molding. What is their real natured? They are two dimensional, skilful painted creations to demarca te different compositions. The inquisitive one may confuse whether Michelangelo was a painter or a sculptor. Temperamentally he was the sculptor—only sculptor. Painting was the professional demand that was thrust upon him by the supreme authority of the Catholic Church—the Pope! He was at his best chiseling the marble blocks and give life to them in the form of extraordinary creations. Sistine Chapel project was an exception that brought forth to surface the intrinsic talents of the painter in him. When he was a student in

Friday, January 24, 2020

A Comparison of Freedom in Secrets and Lies, One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest, and Beloved :: comparison compare contrast essays

Freedom in Secrets and Lies, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, and Beloved      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     The word freedom has a different meaning for everyone based on their individual circumstances. Webster's Dictionary also provides many definitions for freedom, the most   relevent to this paper being: a) the absence of necessity, coercion, or constraint in choice or action; b) liberation from slavery or restraint or from the power of another. I believe that Webster's Dictionary explains freedom the best when it states that "freedom has a broad range of application from total absence of restraint to merely a sense of not being unduly hampered or frustrated." Since it is really a philosophical question whether a total absence of restraint is really possible, or even desirable, I think mine and most people's general use of the word tends to be more on the side of not being unduly hampered or frustrated.      The two movies Secrets and Lies and One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, and Toni Morrison's novel Beloved all deal with different types and degrees of freedom and the lack there of. Secrets and Lies is about a middle-aged woman who had to grow up at a very young age and never had the freedom to enjoy, or even have, a childhood. One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is the story of a group of patients in a mental hospital who's routine lives are forever changed by a newly committed patient who's life is anything but routine. Beloved follows the shattered lives of the family of an ex-slave living in Ohio after the end of the Civil War and the abolishment of slavery. Even though each deal with very different circumstances, by comparing the lives of each set of characters in these three stories many parallels can be drawn between them. The freedom restrictions imposed in each story are all different, yet the characters' actions are similar. The characters go to drastic lengths when there freedoms are infringed upon, the most drastic occuring when a newly achieved freedom is lost. Before understanding a new freedom the characters have no problem living without it. However once new freedoms are realized the characters are unrelenting in their fight to preserve them.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Paleozoic Era in the geology of Indiana Essay

Paleozoic Era means â€Å"time of ancient life†. It is estimated to have occurred somewhere around 544 and 245 million years ago. During this time period, the Paleozoic era, there was a great increase in variety and development of life. Animal fauna were abundant during the Paleozoic era. It is a time when different types and forms of plants and animals flourished and became diverse and plentiful. Many with hard shells and exoskeletons appeared. As a result more organisms formed into fossils which left trail of history behind for scientists to study. This era is very important in that is entails an explosion of animal growth in which nearly all living animals appeared and then at the end of the Paleozoic era, during the Permian sub era, suddenly a mass extinction wiped out nearly 90% of all living matter. Much research continues into the reasons why these two extreme situations occurred. (Palmer and Geismann Nov 2002) Subdivisions of the Paleozoic era are; in order of time period most recent to oldest, Permian is also referred to as the age of dinosaurs and Pangea. Pangea was the name when the earth was considered a supercontinent. The majority of the plates had massed together and had just one ocean. The land was relatively dry and had few glaciers. Next came the sub-era, Carboniferous Pennsylvanian (high carboniferous) and Mississippian (lower carboniferous) depicted mostly by the large coal deposits in the area of modern day Pennsylvania with many coal swamps which then spread towards the Mississippi river and became more limestone. The stratigraphy (the study of strata or layers) of the two areas is quite different as a result. This area today called Indiana is in the upper Mississippi River valley. It was mostly made up of Limestone and since sea covered much of the continent at this time, there was a large marine population. Many remnants left over were lime marked by green algae and calcium carbonate which has been eroded and formed by waves and sea water. Then came the Devonian sub era, in which small plants began to appear in the beginning and by the end large trees emerged. Also, tetra pods (considered the first vertebrates to exist on earth) or vertebrates began to inhabit the land. Arthropods (an invertebrate having an exoskeleton, segmented body and jointed appendages), insects and arachnids (eight legged and jointed invertebrate animals in the subphylum Chelicerata) also came about during the Devonian time period. Echinoderms (creature with a limited nervous system) and a wide variety of fish also became plentiful. The Silurian era was marked by great changes in the physical makeup of the earth. The basic climates over the earth stabilized and glaciers and their formations melted and the seas levels rose. As a result, the fish population grew by leaps and bounds. Corals reefs developed and marine life continued to thrive. Freshwater varieties and fish with jaws occurred for the first time. The Ordovician sub era was a period during the Paleozoic era when much of the northern hemisphere as mostly underwater and a large land mass was in the south called Gondwana. The land was moist and had migrated close to the South Pole. It is known for its marine invertebrates and limited plants on land. Glaciers ultimately formed and much of the land froze and formed glaciers. This ended with mass extinction of 60% of marine life. The Cambrian era was considered the explosion where a grand diversity of life on earth boomed all of a sudden. Various types of rock were formed during the Paleozoic era. The earth was six large land masses at this time. Modern day continents were relocated and divided later on. Therefore different rocks and formations existed. Limestone and coal are two examples of rock formed during the Paleozoic era. Sedimentary and Cambrian rock and fossils dating back to the Paleozoic era can be found in the state of Indiana. It was close to the equator during the Pangea and lay in a shallow sea of water. Later as the land changed, sand from the Acadian Mountains washed over the rocks and land in the sea. Mollusks, Crinoids, bryozoans, brachiopods, gastropods, bivalves, which are two half shelled filter-feeders, gastropods (snails) and trace fossils can be found as remnants of that time period in the state. Much of the large amounts of plants from the delta are where the large amount of coal originated from. Plants included ferns, seed ferns, moss and many types of swamp plants which also contributed to the large deposits of coal. Plant fossils from the late Paleozoic era include Lepidodendron, Sigillaria, Calamites, Pecopteris, Annularia and Asterphyllities. (Polly, David 2007) Currently, Indiana is rich in limestone, aggregates (crushed limestone dolomite, sand and gravel), aglime (agricultural lime) and other minerals and rock forms. It also has siliciclastic (made from broken pieces of silica rocks) and carbonate rocks (sedimentary rocks made up of mostly carbonate minerals) and coal. These rocks have all evolved from the Paleozoic era through the rock cycle of erosion, deposition, temperature and pressure. Older rocks are altered and become slightly different and newer younger versions. Lingulella  © 2003 Milwaukee Public Museum Works Cited Collins, Allen (1994) last updated in 1999 The Paleozoic Era Web Geological Time Machine Accessed on May 31, 2010 Polly, David (2007) Historical Geology Paleozoic Fossils II Accessed on May 31, 2010 Freebee, M. J. (2002) Paleobiology: The Early Paleozoic Accessed on June1, 2010 UCMP The Paleontology Portal Indiana, U. S. Accessed on May 31, 2010

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Apartheid. What is it Who or what were involved And how...

Apartheid Imagine living in an actual time and place similar to George Orwells 1984. There was a chillingly similar place for non-whites in South Africa from the 1940s to the 1990s. I believe that enforcing Apartheid is unjust and immoral. Reading this paper you will learn: What is apartheid? Who were involved? And how did apartheid end in South Africa? What is apartheid? The system of apartheid--apartness between races--began in 1948 and in the time span of one generation, it wove itself into every aspect of life. Apartheid was a radical and extreme extension of segregation originating in colonial conquest in the seventeenth century by the Dutch (known as Boers or Afrikaners) and English. Apartheid was separation by race and†¦show more content†¦And the administration also repealed the pass laws. And a new constitution created separate parliamentary bodies for Indians and for Coloreds. Put great powers in an executive president, namely Botha. But, Botha administrations bad was: it allowed the white parliamentary chamber to override the Colored and Indian chambers on matters of national significance and it maintained that schools and health and welfare services for non-whites remained segregated and inferior. It did not aid non-whites, especially Bantu, they remained desperately poor. And the State Security Council--which was dominated by military officials rather than cabinet members--became the major policy-making body. He started a massive military buildup. A thing with a lot of influence was computers. Computer technology allowed the government to organize such an atrocious system of segregation and control. The computer helped to concentrate executive power to the hands of South Africas white leaders. The U.S. was the largest supplier of computer technology in South Africa, despite the heavy embargoes placed by the United Nations. American computers were in use in almost every governmental agency, the police system, and the military. Computers not only supported apartheid control, they were completely depended upon to keep control. The government absorbed 41% of all South African computers in 1986. Even if the computers were sold to non-repressive agencies or sold forShow MoreRelatedThe Apartheid Of South Africa1510 Words   |  7 Pages1994, South Africa encountered segregation and ill treatment of its own people deriving from its own national party also known as apartheid, an all-white government. They sought to move the South African people to make way for an all-white South Africa. In their stride to achieve this, the laws they imposed on them made their lives harder; despite this, the persecuted sought freedom. Through all this some believe that the apartheid was easily ended. 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